3-D seismic survey design by Gijs J. O. Vermeer

By Gijs J. O. Vermeer

A necessary aspect for winning 3D seismic survey layout is a uncomplicated knowing of the spatial houses of the seismic wavefield. those homes have been defined for 2-D seismic info in Seismic Wavefield Sampling via a similar writer. This booklet extends the outline into the even more complicated box of three-D seismic facts. A bankruptcy on guidance for survey layout interprets thought into perform. a few case histories illustrate the suggestions. Noise suppression, answer, and imaging are mentioned intimately. Converted-wave survey layout is roofed in a separate bankruptcy. This publication offers crucial wisdom for any acquisition or processing geophysicist and is suggested to every body facing 3-D seismic information. An incorporated CD-ROM additionally comprises an Acquisition layout Wizard and survey optimization software program.

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Compute coefficients A and B by applying Equations 7-13 and 714, respectively. A¼ A¼ ap R 2 T2 ð34; 957:4Þð185Þ ð10:73Þ2 ð560Þ2 ¼ 0:179122 B¼ bp RT B¼ ð1:4494Þð185Þ ¼ 0:044625 ð10:73Þð560Þ Step 4. Substitute the values of A and B into Equation 7-12 to give Z3 À ð1 þ BÞZ2 þ AZ À AB ¼ 0 Z3 À 1:044625Z2 þ 0:179122Z À 0:007993 ¼ 0 Step 5. Solve the preceding third-degree polynomial by extracting the largest and smallest roots of the polynomial using the appropriate direct or iterative method to give Zv ¼ 0:72365 ZL ¼ 0:07534 Step 6.

3 SEPARATOR CALCULATIONS Step 5. 0099 The calculated bubble-point pressure is 4330 psia. 3 SEPARATOR CALCULATIONS Produced reservoir fluids are complex mixtures of different physical characteristics. As a well stream flows from the high-temperature, high-pressure petroleum reservoir, it experiences pressure and temperature reductions. Gases evolve from the liquids and the well stream changes in character. The physical separation of these phases is by far the most common of all field-processing operations and one of the most critical.

4 DENSITY CALCULATIONS The calculation of crude oil density from its composition is an important and integral part of performing flash calculations. The best known and most widely used calculation methods are those of Standing and Katz (1942) [58] and Alani and Kennedy (1960) [3]. These two methods are presented next. The Standing-Katz Method Standing and Katz (1942) [58] proposed a graphical correlation for determining the density of hydrocarbon liquid mixtures. The authors developed the correlation from evaluating experimental, compositional, and density data on 15 crude oil samples containing up to 60 mol% methane.

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