A History of Thermodynamics: The Doctrine of Energy and by Ingo Müller

By Ingo Müller

This ebook deals a simple to learn, all-embracing historical past of thermodynamics. It describes the lengthy improvement of thermodynamics, from the misunderstood and misinterpreted to the conceptually uncomplicated and very necessary concept that we all know this day. insurance identifies not just the recognized physicists who built the sphere, but additionally engineers and scientists from different disciplines who helped within the improvement and unfold of thermodynamics as well.

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60 H. Weyl: “Raum-Zeit-Materie” [Space-time-matter] Springer, Heidelberg (1921) English translation: Dover Publications, New York (1950). 61 For the integral form of these equations of balance the reader might consult I. Müller: “Thermodynamics” Pitman, Boston, London (1985) Chap. 9. A. Truesdell and R. Toupin: “The classical field theories” Handbuch der Physik III/1 Springer. Heidelberg (1960). pp. 660–700 and 736–744. Albert Einstein (1879–1955) 35 In particular the transformation rules of E and B read E„ i  ˜x A ˜x B ϕ and B „ i ˜t „ ˜x „ AB i 1 ˜x A ˜x B ε ϕ 2 ijk ˜x „ ˜x „ AB j k This defines the components Ei ƍ and Bi ƍ in all frames.

Hence inspection of the balance equations shows that we have electro-magnetic pressure = 1/3 electro-magnetic energy density. This relation was to become important in Boltzmann’s investigation of radiation phenomena, cf. Chap. 7. That the Lorentz force on charged matter and its power should appear in an easily derived corollary – of balance type – of the Maxwell equations places electro-magnetic energy firmly among the multifarious incarnations of energy which altogether are conserved. Maxwell says: When I speak of the energy of the field, I wish to be understood literally.

Indeed, if a body has potential energy or kinetic energy, it is only because its mass is bigger at a height, or when it moves. A compressed spring weighs more than a relaxed one. And, if a body is hot, it is also heavier than if it were cold, because its particles have a bigger speed in the mean. If two atoms are bound together chemically – so that their potential energy is smaller than when they are apart – they have a smaller mass. 36 2 Energy Fig. 9. Mayer’s collection of forces To be sure, the factor of proportionality c2 between E and m is so big, and the energy differences are so small, that the mass- and weight-changes in all mentioned cases are too small to be detected.

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