By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Extra resources for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
15. Depositional environment and presence of overpressures (after h-&in, 1 2). Large solid circle indicates the pay zone; the inductionelectric log is shown on the righthand side, the paleoecologic log in the center. ) Paleopressures Such abnormal formation pressures can only exist in older rocks which have been completely enclosed by massive, dense, and essentially impermeable rocks, or in completely sealed formations uplifted to a shallower depth. Tectonic activities Abnormally high pore fluid pressures may result from local and regional faulting, folding, lateral sliding and slipping, squeezing caused by downdropping of fault blocks, diapiric salt and/or shale movements, earthquakes, etc.
The presumed source for this widespread compacting sequence is the underlying Great Valley sediments with their postulated high fluid potentials. It is concluded that the anomalous high fluid potentials of Tertiary rocks within folds on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley reflect indirectly the presence at depth of high fluid potentials in the underlying Great Valley section. The origin of the folds is attributed to dynamic tectonic compression caused by current deep-seated linear diapirism of Great Valley mudstones and related rocks that possess near-perfect plastic properties by virtue of their near-lithostatic fluid pressures.
Excess pressure is the higher pressure due to the temperature increase from T,to T,. Note that during cooling of an isolated fluid system, such as may be caused by uplift and/or erosion, the pressure in the isolated volume will decrease below the normal, hydrostatic value. In a similar fashion, such a temperature decrease may cause a pressure drop in isolated gas zones, with the magnitude of reduction depending on the value of pressure change and the composition of the gas. 10. 9. A. o = Permian, = Upper Pennsylvanian, 0 = Middle Pennsylvanian, 0 = Lower Pennsylvanian.